The American National Standards Institute is a non-governmental organization responsible for the development of voluntary manufacturing standards.
The character set and code described in American National Standard Code for Information Interchange between data processing systems, communication systems and associated equipment. The ASCII set consists of both control and printing characters.
A single group of bars and spaces, which represent an individual number, letter, punctuation mark or other symbol.
This value represents the number of possible characters contained in a lineal inch.
A suitable label, which carries a barcode and is affixed to an article.
A sequence of rectangular shapes and intervening spaces used to encode a string of data. A barcode symbol typically consists of five parts: 1-a leading quiet zone, 2-a start character, 3-data character(s) including an optional check character, 4-a stop character and 5-a trailing quiet zone.
The bar dimension perpendicular to the bar width. Also called height.
The thickness of a bar measured from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same bar.
Bar Width Reduction
Reduction of the nominal bar width dimension on film masters or printing plates to compensate for printing gain.
A minimum of two parallel bars running the length of the top and bottom edge of a barcode. Bearer bars, if used, reduce the probability of a misread when a skewed scanning beam enters and/or leaves the symbol through the top or bottom.
Characteristic of some barcodes that allow decoding of the symbol regardless of whether scanned in a forward or backward direction.
1. A single group of bars and spaces which represent an individual number, letter, punctuation mark or other symbol.
2. A graphic shape representing a letter, numeral or symbol.
3. A letter, digit, or other symbol that is used as part of the organization, control or representation of data.
The vertical or horizontal position of characters with respect to a given reference line.
Those characters available for encodation in a particular barcode symbology.
Generally given as the number of characters per inch (cpi), This dimension is the length, in linear inches, required to encode one character.
A set of unambiguous rules specifying the way in which data may be represented. Numbers and letters used to represent information.
A barcode format in which four bars and three spaces represent the digits 0 through 9 and certain special characters. The code is characterized by four unique start/stop codes, variable intercharacter spacing, and code densityof up to 10 character per inch.
A variable length, bi-directional, discrete, self-checking, alpha-numeric barcode. Code 39 encodes 43 characters; zero through nine, capital A through capital Z, minus symbol, plus symbol, forward slash, space, decimal point, dollar sign and percent symbol. Each character is encoded by 9 bars, 3 of which are always wide.
A variable length, continuous, alpha-numeric barcode. Code 93 encodes all 128 ASCII characters. Forty-three of code 93\'s character set correspond to code 39\'s character set, and 4 additional characters are used as control characters when encoding the full ASCII character set in code 93\'s expanded mode. Each character is encoded with 9 modules composed in a pattern of 3 bars and 3 spaces. Each bar and space width may be one, two, three or four modules wide.
A variable length, bi-directional, continuous, self-checking, alphanumeric barcode. Characters in Code 128 consist of three bars and three spaces. Bars and spaces may be one, two, three, or four modules wide. The total character width is 11 modules. Code 128 obtains its name from its capacity to encode the full ASCII 128 character set.
A barcode scanner that requires physical contact between the encoded medium and the scanner.
A barcode symbol where all spaces within the symbol are parts of characters, e.g., USS-I 2/5. There is no intercharacter gap in a continuous code.
Continuous barcode Symbol
barcodes, where the spaces serve as part of the character\'s definition of bars and spaces. There is no intercharacter space in continuous codes. See Discrete barcode symbol. An example of a continuous barcode symbol is Interleaved 2 of 5 as opposed to code 39, which makes use of intercharacter spaces.
Data Identifier (flag character)
A character (or set of characters) that uniquely defines the specific use of the data or the general category of the data field encoded in the barcode symbol following it.
Measure of a printed barcodes\' ability to be deciphered accurately by a barcode reader.
Decipher the information represented within a barcode symbol.
1) The internal electronics of a barcode reading device that translates the received input signals into meaningful data.
2) The portion of a barcode reader that performs the decoding function.
A printer capable of creating individual documents one at a time, as directed.
Discrete barcode Symbol
Refers to a type of barcode symbol, in which no information is contained in the width of the spaces between characters. Due to this difference the intercharacter space is allowed to vary dimensionally within wider tolerances than those specified for the bars and spaces of the continuous symbol. An example of a discrete barcode is Code 39.
International Article Numbering (European Article Numbering), a superset of U.P.C., used primarily in retail food or merchandise sales.
A single bar or space.
Federation of Automated Coding Technology -- A bureau of AIM consisting of organizations that use and promote automatic identification among their members.
Any group of characters defined as a unit of information. This differs from a line because one line may contain several fields.
Fixed-Length (code and field)
Refers to a symbol or code in which the data elements must be of a specific length.
A specific size and style of printer\'s type.
Bars, which furnish reference points for scanning devices, found at the beginning, middle and end of U.P.C., and EAN symbologies.
HIBC Symbol and Code
Health Industry barcode, format and symbology for automated data entry.
Refers to the portion of a barcode that can be read and understood by humans. This readable part of the symbology represents the barcode contents.
The space between two adjacent barcode characters in a discrete code. Also called the intercharacter gap.
A continuous type barcode in which the characters are paired together with the bars representing the first character and the spaces representing the second character.
Interleaved 2 of 5
Interleaved 2 of 5 is a continuous, self-checking, numeric symbology employing two element size widths. Characters are paired together with each character composed of five elements, two wide and three narrow, representing numbers 0 through 9; with the bars representing the first character and the interleaved spaces representing the second character.
A barcode printed in a vertical position such that the bars can be thought of as rungs on a ladder. See Picket fence.
(LOGistic applications for Marking And Reading Symbols) A Department of Defense program to place Code 39 symbols encoding specific data on all items sold to the Federal Government.
A symbol that appears as a checker board; they are most likely square in shape, and contain some form of unique finder pattern, which distinguishes them from others and provides a decoding reference for scanners.
One thousandth of an inch (0.001 inch), or approximately 0.0254 millimeter. Commonly used to refer to the width of barcode elements, for example, 0.013 inch would be expressed as 13 mils.
Minimum Reflectivity Difference
With an understanding that a white space will reflect more light than a black bar, the minimum reflectivity difference is: the variance between the least amount of light reflected by the narrowest white space, and the most amount of light reflected by the widest black bar. The minimum reflectivity difference is generally used as part of a barcode\'s specification.
Optical Character Recognition.
Abbreviations commonly applied to the character set contained in ANSI Std. X3.17-1974 (A) and ANSI Std. X3.49-1975 (B).
The property of a substrate material that minimizes show-through from the back side or the next sheet. The ratio of the reflectance with a black backing to the reflectance with a white backing. Ink opacity is the property of an ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
The alignment of the symbol\'s scan path. Two possible orientations are horizontal with vertical bars and spaces (picket fence) and vertical with horizontal bars and spaces (ladder).
The fixed number of characters required for start, stop and checking in a given symbol. For example a symbol requiring a start/stop and two check characters contains four characters of overhead. Thus, to encode three characters, seven characters are required.
Rotation of a barcode symbol about an axis parallel to the direction of the bars.
Print Contrast Signal (PCS)
Found as a part of a barcode specification the Print Contrast Signal compares the amount of light reflected by the bars, in contrast to the amount of light reflected by the spaces in a barcode symbol. The Print Contrast Signal value is the bar reflectance expressed as a percentage of the space reflectance.
The measure of compliance of a barcode symbol to the requirements of dimensional tolerance, edge roughness, spots, voids, reflectance, PCS, quiet zone, and encodation.
The Quiet zone is the area preceding the beginning of a barcode and following the end of the barcode, sometimes call the clear area. The quiet zone should contain no dark markings that could confuse or be misinterpreted by a scanning device. A minimum of 10 times the narrowest bar element or a quarter of an inch, whichever is greater, should be maintained for the quiet zone area.
A barcode or symbol using a checking algorithm which can be independently applied to each character to guard against undetected errors.
Rotation of a barcode symbol about an axis parallel to the symbol\'s length.
The lighter element of a barcode usually formed by the background between bars.
The thickness of a space measured from--the edge closest to the symbol\'s start character, to--the trailing edge of the same space.
A specific range of wavelengths or light, from a minimum to a maximum, often named after a central value. The value of 633 nanometers is visible light, while 900 nanometers represents infrared light. Spectral band B633 includes those wavelengths (plus or minus 5 percent) of the 633 nanometer peak. Spectral band B900 includes those wavelengths (plus or minus 10 percent) of the 900 nanometer peak. The spectral band or scanning device is generally listed in barcode specifications.
Symbol Technical Advisory Committee to the Uniform Code Council Inc., (see UCC).
16K and Code 49 are examples where a long symbol is broken into sections and stacked one upon another similar to sentences in a paragraph. Extremely compact codes.
A set of rules, specifications, instructions and directions to use a barcode or other automatic identification system to your profit Usually issued by an organization, e.g., Logmars, HIBCC, U.P.C., etc.
Start/Stop Characters or Patterns
A distinct character or pattern of bars used at the beginning and end of each barcode symbol, which provides initial timing references and direction of read information to the decoding logic.
A combination of characters including start/stop characters, quiet zones, data characters and check characters required by a particular symbology, which form a complete, scannable entity.
Generally given as the number of characters per inch (cpi), Limited by the width of the narrowest bar or space.
The measured length of the barcode from beginning to end including quiet zones.
Rotation of a barcode symbol about an axis perpendicular to the substrate.
Uniform Code Council, formerly Uniform Product Code Council; the organization which administers the UPC and other retail standards.
UCC Company Prefix
Part of the UDCC-12 Data Structure consisting of a UCC prefix and a company number allocated by the UCC.
A one-digit index number administered by the UCC, denoting the format and meaning of a particular Element String contained within the UCC-12 numbering structure.
Uniform Container Symbol.
UPC (Universal Product Code)
Most commonly recognized as the 12 digit code found on grocery shelf items. Adopted by the U.S. grocery industry and later by other retail industries. The U.P.C. is composed of a number system character, a five digit manufacturer number assigned by the UCC, a five digit product code assigned by the manufacturer, and a modulo 10 check digit as the 12th digit.
Uniform Symbol Specification. The current series of symbology specifications published by AIM; currently includes USS-I 2/5, USS-39, USS-93, USS-Codabar and USS-128.
Variable Length Symbology
A symbology whose length is not predetermined beyond the basic necessity for characters, such as start/stop codes. Examples of fixed length symbologies are: U.P.C.-A, EAN-13, etc., while Code 39 is an example of a variable length alphanumeric code. Code 39 can support any data length from one character up to a maximum determined by the reading decoding device, generally 32 or more characters.
The technical process by which a barcode symbol is evaluated to determine whether it meets the specification for the specified symbol.
A device that measures a symbol\'s bars, spaces, quiet zones, and optical characteristics to determine whether it meets the requirements of a specific symbol.
A barcode pattern presented in such orientation that the symbol from start to stop is perpendicular to the horizon. The individual bars are in an array appearing as rungs of a ladder.
The availability of multiple scan paths through a symbol to minimize the effects of localized printing defects. This increases the ability to scan a symbol.
The undesirable absence of ink in a bar.
Wide to Narrow Ratio (N)
The relationship of the wide to the narrow element widths, in a barcode having two element widths. Generally some where between 2.0 to 1 through 3.2 to 1.
The average specified width of the narrow element in a barcode determined by the application and/or symbology specification.